1. Construction of Perfect and Modern Forensic Anatomy Laboratory: The additional resolution of the FY 2001 budget passed by the Legislative Yuan indicated “A perfect and modern forensic anatomy laboratory should be established to improvement forensic anatomy environments.”, on February 6, 2002, the forensic anatomy laboratory of the institute signed a cooperation agreement with the Tri-Service General Hospital, the laboratory would use the second floor of Huaide Hall (2F, No. 325, Sec. 2, Chenggong Rd., Neihu District, Taipei City) to set up a forensic anatomy laboratory and performed overall planning in improving the forensic anatomy and building up an international-level forensic anatomy laboratory. The construction was completed on March 27, 2003; the anatomy laboratory met the standard for the third grade laboratories after checking by the industrial technology research institute. The installation of the institute’s forensic anatomy laboratory is historically meaningful to the improvement of forensic anatomy environments. The result is used as a goal to help other prosecutors’ offices in different areas to estimate the possibilities in construction of modern anatomy laboratories, and to establish modern anatomy laboratories in the central, southern and eastern areas. 2. Improving Working Environment for Forensic Scientists: Continuous Planning to set up forensic anatomy laboratories in the central, southern and eastern areas: Since its establishment, the institute has been actively involved in coordinating prosecutors’ offices in different areas to renovate anatomy laboratories, and expecting them to have excellent refrigerating and X-ray fluoroscopy equipments for the purpose of superior testing operation. In addition, for the future development, the construction of forensic anatomy laboratories in the central, southern and eastern areas is constantly mapped out according to the scope of the established forensic anatomy laboratory in the northern area. The institute cooperates with several major teaching hospitals, helping its neighboring prosecutors’ offices with anatomy, testing and the training of forensic scientists. 3. Encouraging the Certification of Forensic Laboratories: In response to the international trend for the Forensic Science Laboratory to obtain certification, the institute participate the performance testing program for forensic pathology, and forensic toxicology of alcohol and carbon monoxide to raise inspection quality, which is held by the College of American Pathology (CAP). The institute also actively involves in applying the government’s 2006 Technological Plan Grant to establish relative hardware and software infrastructure, proceeding toward the goal of international-laboratory certification step by step. 4. Adjusting the Salary of Forensic Medical Examiners, and Actively Recruiting Forensic Talents: There are 14 positions for qualified doctors in the, among them 10 positions are for qualified pathology doctors. However, there are so far only 2 qualified pathology doctors, serving as a director and a researcher respectively, due to low salary. The monthly salary of a forensic pathology doctor is from 150,000 to 200,000 NTD. The salary of a forensic medical examiner in district prosecutors’ offices is from 100,000 to 150,000 NTD. Compared to 250,000 to 350,000 NTD for pathology doctor in a teaching hospital, the salary of a forensic medical examiner is obviously too low to attract excellent forensic talents to join forensic services. It is hoped that the salary of a forensic medical examiner can be raised in the future to obtain more forensic talents. 5. Completing the Annual Report of Forensic Detection Business Year by Year: In order to effectively follow the cases in connection with forensic medical business, the institute sets up a database to provide figures for civilian sanitation and crime prevention policies on the annual basis. 6. Integrating Domestic Forensic Units: Coordination and integration the related domestic forensic units including the Bureau of Investigation, the Criminal Investigation Bureau and Central Police University in order to use forensic science resources completely and elaborate supplementary forensic effects. 7. Procuring Equipments and Increasing Forensic Efficiency The institute takes charge in the test, analysis and research on live bodies, pathology and causes of death. It acquires the subsidy from the National Science Council Forensic Technology Subsidization Program. Now the institute is engaged in research programs such as “Forensic research on developing the application of ultrasound three-D scanning technology and microscopic digital comparison technology to the bodies, tools and traces on crime scenes”, “Founding a forensic investigation management system and life statistics application” and “Forensic research on developing the designator for pathological creatures dying of suffocation”, and is engaged in the construction of “Domestic Organ Bank”. They are of great help to the development of domestic forensic business and the promotion of forensic quality, and can intensify the researching and developing strength and forensic ability of the institute 8. Holding Conferences for Consulting Doctors Periodically: The conferences for seriously difficult forensic cases are held constantly every month for doctors to communicate with one another thoroughly, allowing sharing experience and producing forensic cases with high accuracy. 9. Continuously Sending Personnel to Attend International Forensic Conferences: Maintain contacting with international forensic experts can increase the learning and fathoming opportunities, the trained personnel can lift the level of forensic technology of the institute. By publishing research essays, the international academic reputation of the institute can be elevated, and international academic interaction can also be facilitated. Therefore, our country’s forensic work will be internationally known; technological view would be expanded and international point of view can take root. 10. Recommending Pathology Doctors to be Trained Abroad and Professional Training: The Ministry of Justice has been actively involved in training forensic professionals since 1990 to solve the problem of lock of forensic talents. By drawing up the “Points for the Forensic Medicine Institute, Ministry of Justice to recommend pathology doctors to study abroad”, the institute recommends pathology doctors to study abroad and complete the forensic training for pathology doctors. As of 2004, total 12 doctors had completed the training. It is of great help to the cultivation of forensic pathological professional talents. 11. Applying the Latest Technology to the Analysis and Research of DNA: The Forensic Genetics and Trace Evidences Division will search for new information and methods in the research field of DNA testing in order to analyze and research the DNA of forensic samples. The “evaluation research on the DNA extraction of human bonds and the analysis of STR genotypes” is scheduled to be carried out in 2007. The evaluation on the DNA testing of the samples and micro-tiny samples from rotten organs after being affected by physical or chemical factors will be performed in from 2008 to 2010. In addition, the genetic mutation rate of pathological organization is researched further to estimate the effect of cancer tissues on forensic results. It is expected that the above results and methods of researches will be applied to the institute’s forensic analyses of samples. 12. The Future Directions of the Forensic Toxicology Division The laboratory has presented original research and case reports at the Taiwan Academy of Forensic Sciences, Society of Forensic Toxicologists and the American Academy of Forensic Sciences annual meetings as well as published in the Journal of Analytical Toxicology. In the future, the laboratory plans to expand its capacity and services by the incorporation of more automation and the inclusion of testing that is currently sent out to a reference laboratory.
Forensic Pathology Division
1.Goal The goal of the division is to optimize the morgue, workplace bio-safety and improve the overall standard of medical examiners. 2. Objective The objective of Forensic Pathology Division is to accept commissions about the investigation and identification of medico-legal cases from the judiciaries. Forensic pathologists or medical examiners are appointed by the division to do the external viewing the corps or medico-legal autopsies with written reports of the cause of death, manners of death, etc. The written reports do play a crucial role during the justiciary process. The division also provides the training and education for the forensic talents, coroners, medical examiners and employs eminent forensic experts and scholars to participate in forensic practices. 3. Mission External view, Autopsy and management of the death investigation, Determination of the cause of death and manners of death, To identify the decease by physical anthropology, Evaluation and investigations of medico-legal documents, Determination and interpretive the cause of death and manners of death, Further documentation under inquiry, Collaborative crime scene investigation with death investigation. 4. Cultivation of Talent Arranging Academic Seminars on Forensic Science A Series of academic seminars on forensic science were given biweekly to reinforce the training of forensic talents. The purpose of the seminars is not only to learn experiences from the forensic experts but provide a platform of forensic scientist to meet the forensic specialist from other field and elevate the forensic level of domestic forensic professionals. This academic seminar can serve as references for the policy of forensic medicine and criminology. The Educational and Consulting committee elects a board-certified surgical pathologist annually for advanced study abroad and training professional talents. The purpose is to train a forensic pathologist in order to solve insufficiency of the forensic pathologist in Taiwan. The surgical pathologists who are elected and sent for advanced study abroad and accomplished the training for forensic pathology for half to full one year, will contribute their expertise to our country’s forensic pathology for years after their return. Through the conduction the symposium and workshop of the forensic medicine, the institute provides the experience exchanged among domestic forensic medical academia, enhances the knowledge and accomplish of forensic medical academia, and improves the knowledge and quality of attorneys, prosecutors, judge, coroner, medical examiners forensic scientist and criminal investigators.
Forensic Toxicology Division
Post-Mortem Forensic Toxicology Toxicology is the examination of biological specimens for the presence of alcohol, drugs and other toxic substances. Biological specimens are collected at autopsy and can include the blood samples, urine, gastric and many others. The specimens are put through a battery of chemical tests and introduced to state of the art instrumentation such as Biochip Array, GC/FID, GC/MS, GC/QQQ/MS and LC/IT/MS, LC/QTOF/MS, LC/QQQ/MS. Analysis Provided Determines the absence or presence of drugs and their metabolites, chemicals such as ethanol and other volatile substances, carbon monoxide and other gases, metals, and other toxic chemicals in human fluids and tissues, and evaluates their role as a determinant or contributory factor in the cause and manner of death. Basic Drug Screen Acid/Neutral Drug Screen Opiates Amphetamines Benzodiazepines New Psychoactive Substance(NPS) Alcohols Volatiles Carbon Monoxide Other Analyses Certificate of Accreditation SOP for Quantitation of methanol, ethanol and acetone in biological specimens(TOX-SOP-10-01) SOP for Quantitation of Isopropanol in biological specimens(TOX-SOP-10-02) SOP for Quantitation of carboxyhemoglobin in biological specimens (TOX-SOP-10-04) SOP for Screening basic drugs in biological specimens by GC/MS(TOX-SOP-10-05) SOP for Screening basic drugs in biological specimens by LC/MS/MS(TOX-SOP-10-06) SOP for Quantitation of amphetamines in biological specimens(TOX-SOP-10-07) SOP for Quantitation of opiates in biological specimens(TOX-SOP-10-08) SOP for Quantitation of Methanol, Ethanol, Acetone and Isopropanol in biological specimens by HS/GC/FID/MS(TOX-SOP-10-09) SOP for Quantitation of THC and its metabolites in biological specimens by LC/MS/MS(TOX-SOP-10-10) SOP for Screening basic drugs in biological specimens by LC/QTOF/MS(TOX-SOP-10-11) SOP for Screening pesticides in biological specimens by GC/MS/MS(TOX-SOP-10-15) SOP for Quantitation of Methomyl and Carbofuran in biological specimens by LC/MS/MS(TOX-SOP-10-16) SOP for Quantitation of cocaine and metabolites in biological specimens by LC/MS/MS(TOX-SOP-10-30) SOP for Quantitation of methadone and metabolites in biological specimens by LC/MS/MS(TOX-SOP-10-31) SOP for Quantitation of ketamine and metabolites in biological specimens by LC/MS/MS(TOX-SOP-10-32) SOP for Quantitation of Zaleplon, Zopiclone and Zolpidem in biological specimens by LC/MS/MS(TOX-SOP-10-33) SOP for Quantitation of Paraquat, Diquat, Glyphosate and Glufosinate in biological specimens by LC/MS/MS(TOX-SOP-10-35) SOP for Quantitation of Propofol in biological specimens by GC/MS/MS(TOX-SOP-10-36) SOP for Quantitation of Fluoxetine and metabolites in biological specimens by GC/MS/MS(TOX-SOP-10-37) SOP for Quantitation of Tramadol and metabolites in biological specimens by GC/MS/MS(TOX-SOP-10-38) SOP for Quantitation of Mirtazapine and Clothiapine in biological specimens by GC/MS/MS(TOX-SOP-10-39) SOP for Quantitation of Valproic acid in biological specimens by GC/MS/MS (TOX-SOP-10-40) SOP for Quantitation of cyanide in biological specimens by GC/MS(TOX-SOP-10-41) SOP for Quantitation of Amphetamine, Methamphetamine, MDA and MDMA in biological specimens by LC/MS/MS(TOX-SOP-10-42) SOP for Quantitation of Buprenorphine and its metabolite in biological specimens by LC/MS/MS(TOX-SOP-10-43) SOP for Quantitation of Meperidine and its metabolite in biological specimens by GC/MS/MS(TOX-SOP-10-44) SOP for Quantitation of Quetiapine, Sertraline and Trazodone in biological specimens by LC/MS/MS(TOX-SOP-10-45) SOP for Quantitation of Clonazepam and its metabolite in biological specimens by LC/MS/MS(TOX-SOP-10-46) SOP for Quantitation of Lorazepam in biological specimens by LC/MS/MS(TOX-SOP-10-47) SOP for Quantitation of Carbamazepine, Oxcarbazepine and metabolites in biological specimens by LC/MS/MS(TOX-SOP-10-48) SOP for Quantitation of Phenytoin in biological specimens by LC/MS/MS(TOX-SOP-10-49) SOP for Quantitation of Phenobarbital in biological specimen by LC/MS/MS (TOX-SOP-10-50) SOP for Quantitation of Fentanyl and its metabolite in biological specimens by LC/MS/MS(TOX-SOP-10-51) SOP for Quantitation of Haloperidol in biological specimens by LC/MS/MS(TOX-SOP-10-52) SOP for Quantitation of chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, nordiazepam, oxazepam and temazepam in biological specimen by LC/MS/MS(TOX-SOP-10-53) SOP for Quantitation of flunitrazepam and metabolites in biological specimen by LC/MS/MS(TOX-SOP-10-54) SOP for Quantitation of flurazepam and metabolites in biological specimen by LC/MS/MS(TOX-SOP-10-55) SOP for Quantitation of nimetazepam and metabolites in biological specimens by LC/MS/MS(TOX-SOP-10-56) SOP for Quantitation of alprazolam and metabolite in biological specimen by LC/MS/MS(TOX-SOP-10-57) SOP for Quantitation of TCAs in biological specimen by LC/MS/MS (TOX-SOP-10-66) SOP for Quantitation of PMA, PMMA and PMEA in biological specimens by LC/MS/MS(TOX-SOP-10-71) SOP for Quantitation of 4-Cl-Amphetamine, 4-F-Amphetamine, 4-Cl-Methamphetamine and 4-F-Methamphetamine in biological specimens by LC/MS/MS(TOX-SOP-10-72) SOP for Quantitation of Ethylone, Methylone and Pentylone in biological specimens by LC/MS/MS(TOX-SOP-10-73) SOP for Quantitation of N-Ethylpentylone、Dibutylone、Butylone in biological specimen by LC/MS/MS (TOX-SOP-10-74) SOP for Quantitation of Mephedrone and metabolite in biological specimen by LC/MS/MS (TOX-SOP-10-76) SOP for Quantitation of Eutylone、Pentylone in biological specimens by LC/MS/MS (TOX-SOP-10-79)